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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD
 

Overview

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a mental condition of an ongoing pattern of hyperactivity or inattention-impulsivity. This disorder can have profound influence in the functioning or development of an individual.
 
Inattention
Inattention is where a person walks away from a given task at hand, lacks determination, has difficulty maintaining focus, and is not very well organized. These problems appear to be because of defiance or because the person is not able to understand what needs to be done. But that is not the real reason.
 
Hyperactivity

Hyperactivity is where a person seems to be moving all the time continuously even when they are not supposed to do so including when it is not appropriate to do so. These movements include tapping or talking or fidget at cetera.

It can also come in the form of taxing others with constant activity and show high degree of restlessness.

 

Impulsivity
Impulsive people tend to be very intrusive in their interaction with others and they tend to interrupt others.

They make important decisions without considering its long-term consequences. A person that is impulsive will seem like taking actions in the moment without thinking about consequences even in cases where there is a chance for high potential for Risk. They seem to be looking for immediate gratification and show inability to wait for the rewards.

 

Signs and symptoms
 
Two of the key aspects of ADHD or Inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity. Some people suffering with ADHD have only one of the problems whereas some have both the problems
 
 is it normal to have some level of intention and impulsivity?
 

Absolutely, but in case of people suffering with a ADHD this behaviors are more severe, and they occur more often. Moreover they seem to have an effect on the quality of their life at school or on the job.

Let us now look at some of the symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity
 
inattention
 
people with inattention seem to exhibit the following symptoms

 

  • They seem to miss out on details. When it comes to their school work or on the job they seem to make careless mistakes.
  • They seem to have trouble maintaining attention in tasks like play, including conversations, lectures.
  • They seem to be not listening even when they are spoken to directly

 

  • they have trouble following instructions and often fail to finish their duties like school work.
  • They seem to get sidetracked easily and are observed to lose focus very quickly.
  • They show for writing skills towards their tasks and activities.
  • They seem to carry aversion towards anything that seems to require sustained mental effort. These could be school works or preparing reports or rewriting lengthy papers etcetera.
  • They seem to lose things that are important to complete their tasks or activities. In case of students these include School supplies such as pencils, books et cetera. In case of adults these include wallets, eyeglasses and cell phone.
  •  
  •  They are easily distracted by unrelated consideration.
  •  Forget daily activities such as running errands, returning calls and keeping appointments
     

Hyperactivity impulsivity
people with hyperactivity impulsivity show the following symptoms
 

  •  They show inability to play quietly
  •  they cannot seem to engage in hobbies in a quiet manner
  •  sometimes they seem to talk in a nonstop manner
  •  during conversation or activities they seem to interrupt or intrude on others
  •  often seen to sqirm in their seats when remaining on the seat is generally expected behavior.
  • They seem to leave the seats without any reason.
  • Even when inappropriate they seem to run around or climb.
  • They give answer even the question is not completely spelled out.
  • They seem to be in a constant motion like a fully charged battery and seem like they are driven by some kind of a motor.
  •  
  • During conversations they appear as if they seem to override other people for their turn to speak.
     

Causes
 
Researchers could not find exactly what causes ready ADHD. The following factors seem to be contributing to this illness.

  •  genetics
  •  brain injuries
  •  low birth weight
  •  getting exposed to environmental toxins during pregnancy
  •  getting exposed to toxins such as high levels of lead at a very young age
  •  cigarette smoking , alcohol use , or drug use during pregnancy

 
 Treatment
 
 there are two groups of treatments available
 

  1. medication and
  2. Psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions

 
Medication

ADHD medication seem to reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity in case of many people. With medication patients are seen to improve their ability to focus and learn. This medication can be classified into two categories

  1. Stimulants
  2. non-stimulants

 
Stimulants

This is the most common type of medication given to patients with ADHD. Simple and they work by increasing the brain chemical dopamine which place an important role in thinking and attention.
 

  • however stimulants can have the following side effects
  • develop sleep problems
  • have headaches stomach aches
  • a Surge in anxiety
  • personality changes can be seen as well
  • decreased appetite
  •  

non stimulants
this is the second category of medicines that doctors prescribe to treat ADHD. This type of medicines takes longer to start working than stimulants but they can also improve focus, attention and the ability to learn. When a stimulant is showing side effects or when stimulant is not effective a non-stimulant is usually prescribed. Sometimes stimulant and non-stimulant are used in combination as well for or increased effectiveness.
 
 Psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions include

  • behavioral therapy
  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • family and marital therapy
  • parenting skills training
  • specific behavioral classroom management interventions
  • stress management techniques
  • and the use of support groups
     
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